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Museum ship cruiser Aurora. The first music school, the Saint Petersburg Conservatory , was founded in by the Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein.
The school alumni have included such notable composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky , Sergei Prokofiev , Artur Kapp , Rudolf Tobias and Dmitri Shostakovich , who taught at the conservatory during the s, bringing it additional fame.
The renowned Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from to Petersburg apartment of Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the composer's only museum.
Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony".
He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March ; a few month later, it received its first performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg.
It was heard over the radio and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic — a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times — led the orchestra from being a little-known provincial ensemble to it becoming one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras today, especially for the performance of Russian music.
The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modeled after the royal courts of other European capitals. Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music in the country.
The first jazz band in the Soviet Union was founded here by Leonid Utyosov in the s, under the patronage of Isaak Dunayevsky.
The first jazz club in the Soviet Union was founded here in the s and was later named jazz club Kvadrat. In the s student rock-groups Argonavty , Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts and festivals.
In Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium , which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music style was formed.
In the s many bands came out from the "underground" scene and eventually founded the Leningrad Rock Club , which provided a stage to bands such as DDT , Kino , headed by Viktor Tsoi , Alisa , Zemlyane , Zoopark , Piknik , Secret , and many other popular bands.
The first Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika , mixing over people and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the s.
SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant garde music , Electro-Mechanica on electronic music , and Ethnomechanica on world music.
In the early s the city saw a wave of popularity of metalcore , rapcore , and emocore , and there are bands such as Amatory , Kirpichi , Psychea, Stigmata , Grenouer and Animal Jazz.
The White Nights Festival in Saint Petersburg is famous for spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the school year.
The rave band Little Big also hails from Saint Petersburg. Over international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint Petersburg. The first film studios were founded in Saint Petersburg in the 20th century and since the s Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in Saint Petersburg.
The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in Saint Petersburg was the production of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina , starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean and made by an international team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers.
The film White Nights received considerable Western attention for having captured genuine Leningrad street scenes at a time when filming in the Soviet Union by Western production companies was generally unheard of.
Onegin is based on the Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. In addition, the Russian romantic comedy, Piter FM , intricately showcases the cityscape, almost as if it were a main character in the film.
Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the Festival of Festivals, Saint Petersburg , as well as the Message to Man International Documentary Film Festival , since its inauguration in during the White Nights.
Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world famous tradition in literature. Dostoyevsky called it "The most abstract and intentional city in the world", emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia.
It frequently appeared to Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last poems, the Petersburg stories of Gogol , the novels of Dostoyevsky , the verse of Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelshtam , and in the symbolist novel Petersburg by Andrey Bely.
According to Lotman in his chapter, 'The Symbolism of Saint Petersburg' in Universe and the Mind , these writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city itself.
The effect of life in Saint Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became an important theme for authors such as Pushkin , Gogol and Dostoyevsky.
Another important feature of early Saint Petersburg literature is its mythical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost stories , as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to Saint Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as other fantastical elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of Saint Petersburg.
Anna Akhmatova became an important leader for Russian poetry. Her poem Requiem adumbrates the perils encountered during the Stalinist era. While living in the United States, his writings in English reflected on life in Saint Petersburg from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an outsider to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City" and the nostalgic "In a Room and a Half".
However, the public universities are all federal property and do not belong to the city. Leningrad hosted part of the association football tournament during the Summer Olympics.
The Goodwill Games were also held here. In boating, the first competition here was the rowing event initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish fleet.
Yachting events were held by the Russian Navy since the foundation of the city. In the winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are frozen and yachts and dinghies cannot be used, local people sail ice boats.
Equestrianism has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and aristocracy, as well as part of military training.
Several historic sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the 18th century, to maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and Konnogvardeisky Manezh , among others.
Chess tradition was highlighted by the international tournament, partially funded by the Tsar, in which the title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II to five players: Lasker , Capablanca , Alekhine , Tarrasch and Marshall.
In a crowd of , set the single-game attendance record for Soviet football. The team leader was local player Andrei Arshavin. There is also a second professional football club in Saint Petersburg, FC Dynamo Saint Petersburg , which is owned by the historic Dynamo sports society.
Along with their popularity, they are one of the best teams in the KHL right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup twice.
They play their home games at Ice Palace Saint Petersburg. They also won the Saporta Cup twice and Legends of the club include Alexander Belov and Vladimir Kondrashin.
It hosted group stage games, a round of 16 game, a semi-final and a third place match. All games were played at Krestovsky Stadium.
Saint Petersburg is a major transport hub. The first Russian railway was built here in , and since then the city's transport infrastructure has continued to develop and keep pace with the growth of the city.
Petersburg has an extensive system of local roads and railway services, maintains a large public transport system that includes the Saint Petersburg tram and the Saint Petersburg Metro , and is home to a number of riverine services that convey passengers around the city efficiently and in relative comfort.
The city is connected to the rest of Russia and the wider world by a number of federal highways and national and international rail routes.
Pulkovo Airport serves the majority of air passengers departing from or arriving to the city. Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transport buses, trams , trolleybuses and several hundred routes served by marshrutkas.
Trams in Saint Petersburg used to be the main mean of transport; in the s this was the largest tram network in the world, but many tracks were dismantled in the s.
Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over urban and a number of suburban bus routes. Saint Petersburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in ; it now has 5 lines with 69 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 2.
As of , the Saint Petersburg Metro will include new stations: Traffic jams are common in the city due to daily commuter traffic volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow.
The construction of freeways such as the Saint Petersburg Ring Road , completed in , and the Western High-Speed Diameter , completed in , helped partially reduce the traffic in the city.
Saint Petersburg is an important transport corridor linking Scandinavia to Russia and Eastern Europe. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Saint Petersburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 69 min.
The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland , Baltic Sea , the river port higher up the Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river.
Meteor hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt , Lomonosov , Petergof , Sestroretsk and Zelenogorsk from May through October.
In the warmer months many smaller boats and water-taxis maneuver the canals throughout the city. The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals Baltiysky , Finlyandsky , Ladozhsky , Moskovsky and Vitebsky , [c]  as well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject.
The new train, known as Sapsan , is a derivative of the popular Siemens Velaro train; various versions of this already operate in some European countries.
These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. Saint Petersburg is served by Pulkovo International Airport ,  and also by three smaller commercial and cargo airports in the suburbs.
Lappeenranta Airport , which is located near Saint Petersburg but on the Finnish side of the border is also popular among Russian travellers.
Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small aerodrome in As of [update] , the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in Russia after Moscow's Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo.
As a result, the steadily increasing passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the entire airport infrastructure.
A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo airport was put into operation on December 4, and integrated international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo The renovated terminal Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an extension of the Terminal 1 in Saint Petersburg is home to numerous parks and gardens, some of the most famous of which are situated in the southern suburbs, including one of the largest English gardens in Europe in Pavlovsk.
Sosnovka is the largest park within the limits of the city proper, occupying ha. The Summer Garden is the oldest one, dating back to the early 18th century and designed in the regular style.
It is situated on the southern bank of the Neva at the head of the Fontanka and is famous for its cast iron railing and marble sculptures.
The most common trees grown in the parks are the English oak , Norway maple , green ash , silver birch , Siberian Larch , blue spruce , crack willow , limes , and poplars.
Important dendrological collections dating back to the 19th century are hosted by the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden and the Park of the Forestry Academy.
In order to commemorate years anniversary of Saint Petersburg a new park was laid out. The park is situated in the north western part of the city.
The construction was started in It is planned to connect the park with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of Lakhta Center 's recreation areas.
In the park trees of valuable sorts, decorative apple-trees, 70 limes. These trees were presented to Saint Petersburg by non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its sister-cities, city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia, German Savings Bank and other people and organizations.
Aerial view of the Field of Mars. Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden. Catherine Park , Tsarskoye Selo. The crime dynamic in Saint Petersburg is tightly associated with the general social situation in the country.
By then the city had fallen under the control of a number of organized criminal groups such as Tambov Gang , Malyshev Gang, Kazan Gang and ethnic criminal groups, engaged in racket , extortion , paying off local government and violent clashes with each other.
According to official sources the number of crimes committed by foreigners in Saint Petersburg in increased by Law enforcement authorities consider this was associated with an increased number of people from some CIS republics who live in Saint Petersburg illegally.
The official portal of the Government of Saint Petersburg provided data on significant improvements in the crime situation.
In , Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs warned LGBT travellers about a vaguely worded law in Saint Petersburg that came into effect on March 17, , making it a criminal offence to publicize acts of male or female homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism.
The intention of the law is to protect minors. A Russian travel advisory on the Foreign Affairs website notes that while homosexuality is legal in Russia it was decriminalized in , LGBT Canadian travellers should avoid "displaying affection in public, as homosexuals can be targets of violence Public actions including dissemination of information, statements, displays or conspicuous behaviour contradicting or appearing to contradict this law may lead to arrest, prosecution and the imposition of a fine.
Milan and Venice were formerly twin cities of Saint Petersburg, but suspended this link due to St Petersburg's ban on "gay propaganda".
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Demographics of Saint Petersburg. The Smolny Institute , seat of the governor. The city assembly meets in the Mariinsky Palace.
Economy of Saint Petersburg. Landmarks of Saint Petersburg. Society and culture in Saint Petersburg.
Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University. Education in Russia and List of higher education and academic institutions in Saint Petersburg.
Sport in Saint Petersburg. Saint Petersburg Metro map. Rail transport in Russia. Intercity and suburban rail terminals of Petersburg. People from Saint Petersburg.
List of people from Saint Petersburg. Crime in Russia and Tambov gang. List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia.
List of sister cities to Saint Petersburg as it appears on the official portal of the City Government, listing both sister cities and partnership ties .
Sister cities in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Baltic states Almaty , Kazakhstan since  Baku , Azerbaijan since  Dushanbe , Tajikistan since  Yerevan , Armenia since    Vilnius , Lithuania since   Riga , Latvia since   Sevastopol since  Daugavpils , Latvia since  Tallinn , Estonia since .
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Tunnelbanestationerna ligger mycket djupt under marken och har utsmyckats likt Moskvas tunnelbanestationer. Hamnar finns i Finska viken , i Östersjön via kanaler samt i floden Neva.
Sankt Petersburg har ett rikt kulturliv och nattliv, speciellt för den som kan ett par ord ryska. För andra betydelser, se Saint Petersburg olika betydelser.
För andra betydelser, se Petersburg olika betydelser. Detta avsnitt är en sammanfattning av Belägringen av Leningrad. Sankt Petersburgs administrativa indelning.
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Omdöpt efter rysk erövring. Officiellt ryskt namn efter freden i Nystad